The Indus River is one of the longest rivers in Asia. It flows through Pakistan, India (Jammu and Kashmir) and China (Western Tibet). The origin of the Indus River, near Mansarovar in Tibet, is believed to be a stream called Sin-Ka-Bab. The length of this river is usually 3180 (2880) kilometers. From here, this river flows between Tibet and Kashmir. It runs through the northern part of Nanga Parbat, passes through Pakistan in the southwest and then joins the Arabian Sea. Much of this river flows into Pakistan. It is the longest river and national river in Pakistan.
The Indus has five tributaries. Their names are Vistasta, Chandrabhaga, Iravati, Vipasa, and Shatadru. Shatadru is the largest tributary of these. The Bhakra-Nangal dam on the Sutlej / Shatadru river has helped the irrigation and power projects greatly. Because of this, farming in Punjab (India) and Himachal Pradesh has changed its face there. Srinagar, the capital of Jammu and Kashmir, is situated on the banks of the Vistada (Jhelum) river.
Introduction Of Indus River
The Sindh River/Indus River is one of the three major rivers of northern India. It originates in the Sengkhabb sources 62.5 miles north of Kailash in the Greater Himalayas. Descending from its origin, crossing the border of Kashmir through the wide valley of the Tibetan Plateau, flows into the desert and irrigated tracts of Pakistan in the southwest, and falls into the Arabian Sea south of Karachi. Its entire length is about 2,000 miles. It crosses the Jaskar Range near Khaitasho Village in Baltistan, flowing more than 10,000 feet deep into the Mahakhad, one of the world’s largest ravines. Where it joins the Gilgit River, it tilts to the southwest, forming a curve. At Stuck, it reaches the ground and meets the Kabul River. The river Sindh used to merge with the Kutch run, 70 miles east of its present mouth, but the river’s estuary has now shifted westward due to the run-off.
Jhelum, Chinav, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej are the major tributaries of Sindh River/Indus River. Apart from these, there are other tributaries of Gilgit, Kabul, Swat, Kurram, Tochi, Gomal, Sangar, etc. Due to the melting of snow in March, there is a sudden severe flood. During monsoon, the water level is high due to monsoon. But in September, the water level goes down and remains low throughout the winter. Sindh water is extensively used for irrigation near the confluence of Sutlej and Sindh. In 1932, Lloyd Dam was built on the river Sindh in Sakkhar through which 5 million acres of land is irrigated. Wherever Sindh river/Indus River water is available for irrigation, wheat cultivation is prominent and in addition cotton and other cereals are also cultivated and there are pastures for dhora. The river forms a delta of 3,00 square miles next to Hyderabad (Sindh). Navigation in the river is dangerous due to the siltation and diversion of the river.
The Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1400 BC) was one of the major civilizations of the ancient river valley civilizations of the world.
Tributaries of Indus River
Beas River, Chenab River, Gar river, Gilgit River, Gomal River, Hunza River, Jhelum River, Kabul River, Kunar River, Kurram River, Panjnad River, Ravi River, Shyok River, Soon River, Suru River, Sutlej River, Swat River, Zanskar River, Jhob River
History of Indus River/Sindhu River
The Sindhu River, popularly known as ‘Indus River’ in English, is one of the longest and major rivers of the Indian subcontinent and Asia. The river starts running around the Mansarovar lake in Tibet and enters the state of Jammu and Kashmir of India, heading northwest. From Jammu and Kashmir, this river enters Pakistan and travels southwards across Pakistan and joins the Arabian Sea.
General information related to Indus River
Countries – China (Tibet), India and Pakistan
States – China (Tibet), India (Jammu and Kashmir), Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh)
Origin – from glaciers and other small water sources near Mansarovar lake in Tibet
Estuary – Arabian Sea (main) and Rann of Kutch (second)
Length – 3610 km
Indus River Names
In ancient Sanskrit texts, this river is described as ‘Sindhu’. This word means ‘ocean or a large group of water’. The people of Iran started calling it Hendu. The name came from the Iranians to the Yunani (Greek) people, who changed it to ‘Indos’ and the Romans started calling it ‘Indus’.
Some linguists say that the river Indus means ‘border or edge’ rather than ‘ocean or a large group of water’. In ancient times, the Indus River served as a border or border between Iranians and Indians.
How important this river used to be in ancient India, it can be gauged from the fact that the first Vedas,
The word ‘Sindhu’ is found 176 times in the Rigvedic in one way or the other.
India got its name due to Indus river
India is known as India in English, and the name is derived from the Indus River. As we have told you that the Greeks and Romans used to call the Indus river Indos or Indus. So he started calling India India, which means ‘Country of the River Indus’.
The name Hindustan or Hindu is also derived from the name of this river itself. Because many people coming to India from the west called the Indus River as ‘Hendu River’. So he started calling the people living across the Indus River as Hindus and calling his country Hindustan, which means ‘the place of Hindus’. At present, even though people of many other religions reside in India, only 1000 years ago there used to be only the Hindu religion in India.
Sindhu River Map
Indus river is very important for Pakistan
Indus is the longest river in Pakistan as well as its national river. A large part of Pakistan’s economy depends on the water of the Indus River. The cultivation of the Punjab and Sindh states of Pakistan rests on the waters of the Indus River.
The five rivers because of which Punjab is named, are all found in the Indus River in Pakistan. These are 5 rivers – Jehlum, Chenab, Ravi, Vyas, and Sutlej. These five rivers, including Sindhu, go to Pakistan only through India.
In the year 1960, Indus Water Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in which the waters of all 5 rivers of Indus and Punjab were divided. In this, 80% of the water from the rivers of Pakistan came, while India got only 20%.
Other things related to Indus River
The Indus River irrigates an area of about 11,65,000 sq km. It flows 243 cubic kilometers of water every year. This amount of water is more than double the world’s longest river Nile. In this case, the Indus is the 21st highest flowing river in the world.
The weather greatly affects the flow of the river Sindu. In the winter, where its water gets very less, then it gets flooded in the monsoon rainy season.
The waterways of the Indus River have been changing from time to time due to earthquakes and other natural changes.