The Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1700 BC) was one of the world’s major river valley civilizations. It is also known as the Harappan civilization and Indus-Saraswati civilization. It developed along the banks of the Indus and Ghaghghar / Hakra (ancient Saraswati). Mohenjodaro, Kalibanga, Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi, and Harappa were its major centers.
The common date of the Indus Valley Civilization has been considered as 2350 BC to 1750 BC by using a unique method like radiocarbon c14.
Important Details About The Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization)
- Indus civilization was discovered by Raibahadur Dayaram Sahni.
- The Indus civilization can be placed in the prehistoric era.
- The main inhabitants of this civilization were the Dravidians and the Mediterranean.
- The westernmost sites of the Indus civilization are Sutkangendor (Baluchistan), the eastern site Alamgir (Meerut), the northern site Mandda (Akhnoor, Jammu, and Kashmir) and the southern site Daimabad (Ahmednagar, Maharashtra).
- The Indus civilization was a medieval urban civilization. Only 6 have been designated as big cities in the maturity stage derived from the Sandhav civilization. These are Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Ganwariwala, Dholavira, Rakhigarh, and Kalibangan.
- Most Harappan sites have been discovered from Gujarat.
- Lothal and Sutkotada were the ports of the Indus civilization.
- Evidence of the use of tillage fields and carved bricks is obtained from Kalibangan.
- The Annagara met Mohenjodaro was probably the largest building of the Sendhava civilization.
- The bathhouse found from Mohenjodaro is a major monument, which is 11.88 meters long, 7 meters wide.
- Agnikund has met Lothal and Kalibanga.
- A sculpture from Mohenjodaro has been found on a three-faced deity with elephants, rhinoceros, cheetahs, and buffalo all around it.
- In the Harappan pieces, the marking of an animal is found.
- A bronze sculpture of a dancer has been found from Mohenjodaro.
- Bead making factories are found in Lothal and Chanhudaro.
- The script of the Indus civilization is emotional. This script is written from left to right.
- The people of the Indus civilization adopted the grid method of appropriation of cities and houses, that is, the doors opened backward.
- The main crops of the Indus civilization were wheat and barley.
- People used honey to sweeten the Indus civilization.
- Rice grains have been found from Rangpur and Lothal, from which evidence of paddy cultivation has been found.
- The Sarpottada, Kalibanga, and Lothal have found ashes of Indus-era horses.
- The unit of weighing was in the ratio of 16.
- The people of the Indus civilization used bullock carts and buffalo carts for transportation.
- The word Meluha mentioned in the records of Mesopotamia refers to the Indus civilization itself.
- The rule of the Harappan civilization was in the hands of the merchant class.
- The people of the Indus civilization considered the earth to be the goddess of fertility and worshiped.
- The evidence of tree worship and Shiva worship is also found from the Indus civilization itself.
- The swastika symbol is a product of the Harappan civilization. From this, the sun can be estimated.
- The remains of any temple have not been found in the cities of the Indus civilization.
- In Indus civilization, Mother Goddess was worshiped.
- The humped bull, this civilization was venerable to the people.
- It can be inferred that the society of Sandhava civilization was matriarchal by getting the clay idols of the woman.
- The people of Sendhava civilization used cotton and woolen clothes.
- For entertainment, people used to catch fishing, hunting and playing chaupad and dice to the Sendhav civilization.
- Kalibanga was the only Harappan site whose lower city was also surrounded by a fort.
- The people of the Indus civilization were not familiar with the sword.
- Purdah and Vaishyavishti were prevalent in the Sandhav civilization.
- The practice of burning and burnt bodies was prevalent. In Harappa, there was a practice of burying dead bodies while burning in Mohenjodaro. Lotus mausoleums have also been found in Lothal and Kalibanga.
- The biggest reason for the destruction of the Sandhav civilization was flooding.
- The soil baked in the fire is called terracotta.
The Economy Of Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization)
The Economy of the Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) was based on agriculture and trade. Agricultural work was carried out in remote and undeveloped areas around the Harappan cities, from where the ruling classes brought agricultural surpluses for future use and stored them in the granaries.
Here we are presenting a brief description of the Economy of Indus Valley Civilization which is very useful for the students preparing for competitive exams like UPSC, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways.
The main crops of the Indus Valley Civilization were wheat, barley, mustard, etc. Evidence of rice has also been found in Lothal and Rangpur. Kalibanga is the only place where evidence of fields has been found. People of this civilization also used to cultivate cotton. The Greeks called cotton as “sindon” (from Sindh). A piece of woven cotton has also been obtained from Mohenjodaro.
Agriculture: The economy of the Indus Valley Civilization was based on agriculture which was also supported by trade and commerce. The main food crops at that time were wheat and barley, but rye, peas, sesame and mustard, etc. were also cultivated.
Trade and Commerce: During the Indus Valley Civilization, there was a lot of development of trade and commerce without the use of metallic currencies because the trade at that time was based on the barter system. However, evidence of some seals of that time has also been found, but it appears that they were used only for trading a few items.
Contact with various countries: Seals obtained as archaeological evidence suggest that this civilization had contact with Mesopotamian cities like Ur, Umma, Kish, Lagash, Susa and Tel Asmar. Literary sources in Mesopotamia suggest that in 2500 BCE they were traded with ‘Mehula’ (Indus region) and that their two important trading centers were ‘Dilman’ (Bahrain) and ‘Makan’ (Makran).
Weight and measurement: The people of this civilization had developed their own weight and measurement system which was based on multiples of 16.
Animal Husbandry: During the Indus Valley Civilization, hump bulls, bulls, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs, cats, dogs and elephants were reared.
During the Indus Valley Civilization, there was considerable progress in all areas of economic activity such as agriculture, industry, crafts, and trade. Special groups of artisans included goldsmiths, brick makers, stone cutters, weavers, boat builders, and terracotta makers. The brass and copper utensils are a classic example of the metal craft of this civilization.